Strengths And Weaknesses Of Studies On Job Satisfaction Education Essay

Job satisfaction is a state whereby an employee is content with the situation around him/her. Satisfaction occurred when you get everything you desire from your work. The achievement of one desire to work leads to job satisfaction. The desire may be financial, prestige, social recognition or just to find something to do or somewhere to go, etc.

Locke (1976) defined job satisfaction as a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the perception of one’s job as fulfilling one’s important job values, provided these values are compatible with one’s needs.…/HYPERLINK “…/job-satisfaction-of-call-center-employees”jobHYPERLINK “…/job-satisfaction-of-call-center-employees”-HYPERLINK “…/job-satisfaction-of-call-center-employees”satisfactionHYPERLINK “…/job-satisfaction-of-call-center-employees”-of-call-center-employees

Bram Steijn (2000) cited (Hackman & Oldman 1980) that believed a higher job satisfaction is associated with increased productivity, lower absenteeism and lower employee turnover.

A lot of research or studies had been carried out on job satisfaction. Many of them are carried out to establish the level of job satisfaction among a group of employees or a profession, many establishes the relationship between job satisfaction and constructs like commitment to work, motivation at work, managerial approaches, productivity etc.

This chapter will discuss the strengths and weaknesses of many of these studies and also highlight how this present research will contribute to them.


Job satisfaction among the professionals

Roberto & Jon, (2003) analysed the level of job satisfaction by certified athletic trainers in selected National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I-AA institution having football programmes. They made use of an excellent job satisfaction scale called the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaires to collect the data from the 240 samples around the country, 138 questionnaires were returned among which only 31% were young employees. The one – way analysis plus post hoc which were perfect were used to analyzed the data. The percentage of the young employees used for the analysis was low. In these present studies 100% of the samples will be young employees in order to establish the factors affecting job satisfaction among them.…/HYPERLINK “…/job-satisfaction-among-athletic-trainers-ncaa-division-iaa-institutions”jobHYPERLINK “…/job-satisfaction-among-athletic-trainers-ncaa-division-iaa-institutions”-HYPERLINK “…/job-satisfaction-among-athletic-trainers-ncaa-division-iaa-institutions”satisfactionHYPERLINK “…/job-satisfaction-among-athletic-trainers-ncaa-division-iaa-institutions”-HYPERLINK “…/job-satisfaction-among-athletic-trainers-ncaa-division-iaa-institutions”amongHYPERLINK “…/job-satisfaction-among-athletic-trainers-ncaa-division-iaa-institutions”-HYPERLINK “…/job-satisfaction-among-athletic-trainers-ncaa-division-iaa-institutions”athleticHYPERLINK “…/job-satisfaction-among-athletic-trainers-ncaa-division-iaa-institutions”-HYPERLINK “…/job-satisfaction-among-athletic-trainers-ncaa-division-iaa-institutions”trainersHYPERLINK “…/job-satisfaction-among-athletic-trainers-ncaa-division-iaa-institutions”-HYPERLINK “…/job-satisfaction-among-athletic-trainers-ncaa-division-iaa-institutions”ncaaHYPERLINK “…/job-satisfaction-among-athletic-trainers-ncaa-division-iaa-institutions”-HYPERLINK “…/job-satisfaction-among-athletic-trainers-ncaa-division-iaa-institutions”divisionHYPERLINK “…/job-satisfaction-among-athletic-trainers-ncaa-division-iaa-institutions”-HYPERLINK “…/job-satisfaction-among-athletic-trainers-ncaa-division-iaa-institutions”iaaHYPERLINK “…/job-satisfaction-among-athletic-trainers-ncaa-division-iaa-institutions”-HYPERLINK “…/job-satisfaction-among-athletic-trainers-ncaa-division-iaa-institutions”institutions

The findings or the results of analysis found that there is significant difference (p less than 0.05) in trainers’ job satisfaction and their various employment positions. While those in high/upper position(which assume to be among the old employees) were most satisfied with their jobs, those in low post were not and these are mainly the assistant trainers and graduate assistant( mainly young employees). Even though the study did not mention the theory used, it was established that the older trainers experience greater job satisfaction than young trainers. This present study will consider using some established theories to buttress its findings.

The above study was supported by K. Chandraiah et al (2003)’s study that investigated the effect of Age on Occupational stress and job satisfaction among managers of different age groups. They made use of the Occupational Stress Index and Job Descriptive Index to gather data from the 105 samples out of which 35 were young employees. One of the results of the findings found that the young employees/managers are more stressful due to the load of work and thereby job unsatisfied.

The scales used were good, the samples were well selected in and around Calcutta city but the number of the young employees involved were few. This research aims to concentrate on the young employees who happen to be the future strength of any organisation.

Patrick & Manuel, (2007) also supported the above in their study that investigated job satisfaction among practising pharmacy. They made use of Rasch Rating Scale Model, gathered data from 5000 samples throughout the United States but finally made use of 840 for the purpose of data analysis. One of their findings which I am very much interested in found that the older, higher-wage earning pharmacists working at independence practice sites experience greater amount of job satisfaction. .This meant that the young pharmacists/employees in this study were less job satisfied.

Ibrahim et al, (2005) investigated job satisfaction of primary health care physician at capital health region discovered that age affect job satisfaction and that the higher the age the higher the job satisfaction. This result indicated that the young employees are not job satisfied. Ibrahim et al (2005) did a very good job but the numbers of young employees used were few. This study will use 100% of young employees as its samples. www.HYPERLINK “”mejfm.comHYPERLINK “”/HYPERLINK “”journalHYPERLINK “”/July05/PDFs/JobSatisfaction.pdf

Sharon and Zhan, (2003) made use of bottom-up theory as on one of the theories and questionnaires with high reliability and validity values in their survey of job satisfaction of recent graduates in financial service . One of the results of the findings indicated that graduates were fairly satisfied with their jobs and not extremely satisfied.

The use of young graduates which I can classify as young employees was excellent but the study focused on a particular professional. This study will make use of the bottom-up theory as they did but will include young employees from other professional fields such as teaching, nursing, call center, care workers, transport etc.

A.O. Okaro et al (2010) evaluated the job satisfaction level of Nigeria radiographers working in the South-Eastern, Nigeria. Using 28 item self-completion questionnaires and later analysed the data with Statistical Package for Social Sciences(SPSS), concluded that Nigeria radiographer working in the South – Eastern are not job satisfied with their job and would prefer another job if given a choice. www.euroHYPERLINK “”journalsHYPERLINK “”.com/ejsr_39_3_13.pdf

Susan J Linz (2002) analyzed the nature and scope of job satisfaction among the Russian workers. The study was in four different folds, among them was the use of survey data to identify level of job satisfaction by 1200 survey participant; investigate the variation in job satisfaction explained by differences in worker characteristics e.g. age. Sex.

Her findings found that respondents were generally satisfied with their own job and the kind of work they do in their job. It was also revealed that the older workers (born before 1965) were significantly more satisfied with their job and work more than young workers and older workers also thought less frequently about quitting. The concentration will be on the young employees in this study and will involve only those in the city. http://HYPERLINK “”

Muhammad Masroor Alam and Jmilha Fakir Mohammmad (2009) investigate the level of job satisfaction and intent to leave among Malaysian nurses. The results of the study found that the nurses were moderately satisfied with their job in all six facets of job satisfaction i.e. satisfaction with supervisors, job variety, closure, compensation, co- workers and HRM/ management policies. They also found that the nurses perceived a lower level of intention to leave.…/Article_10.pdf

In support of the above research and some others, Bram Steijn (2002) cited Reiner and Zhao (1999) who reported only a significant effect of age and Ting (1997) who reported mixed results with significant effects for age and race but not for education and gender. “”HRMHYPERLINK “”/potsdam/steijn.pdf

Contrary to the above findings and some others Sariye Gaziolu and Aysit Tansel (2002) observed a non-linear relationship between age and the four measures of job satisfaction. This non-linearity showed a U- shaped relationship. Sariye Gaziolu and Aysit Tansel (2002) cited the study of Clarks (1996) and Clarks et al (1996) that also reported significantly U shaped pattern in age for several job satisfaction measures.

Safdar Rehman Gehazi and Umar Ali Khan (2007) conducted a study to measure the general and facet specific job satisfaction of the head teachers and the influence of gender and school location on their job satisfaction.

They made use of Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaires (MSQ) and self developed Individual Data Sheet (IDS) to collect data from the respondents. Using the SPSS-10, the findings of the study showed that; head teachers were generally satisfied with their posts; the female head teachers were more satisfied that the male head teachers and that the head teachers located in the urban areas were more satisfied than those located in the rural areas. This study will establish among other things the relationship between the job satisfaction and city life using 100% of city based young employees.…/Issue%202007…/Dr_Umar_Ali.pdf


Job satisfaction in relation to other constructs

Many research works had been done to establish the relationship between the job satisfactions and other constructs such as organisational commitment, life satisfaction, compensation, managerial styles, working condition, personality, etc.

2:2:1 Organizational commitment

Stranglen (2009) defined an organizational commitment as how employee identifies him/herself with the organization.

L.K. Stranglen (2009) carried out a research to determine whether job satisfaction correlates with organisational commitment. 76 nursing home foodservice employees were the participants. Job satisfaction and organisational commitment survey were used to collect the data.

The findings of the research indicated that satisfaction with work itself correlates to organisational commitment and to other three subcategories: organisational identification, involvement in the organisation and loyalty. According to the study, satisfaction with work did not correlate with satisfaction with pay, benefit or operational procedures.

It was also found that the years employed did not correlate with identification, involvement or loyalty for the organisational commitment survey.

Stranglen (2009) cited the study of Sneed and Herman (1990) that found hospital food service employees 29 years old and younger were less committed to the organization than were employees over 30 years. Stranglen (2009) also cited Shen, Pitt-Catsouphes and Smyer (2007), they reported that older employees are more likely to report high commitment to employer than either young employees or employees at the mid – life. .

Stranglen (2009) also indicated that young employees scored lower on loyalty which was one aspect of commitment.

Stranglen (2009) cited Feinstein and Vondrasek (2001) who found that employees could be more committed to the organization by increasing compensation, working conditions and improving policies.

All the above research works indicated that young employees have less organizational commitment. This I think may be as a result of job dissatisfaction. This study will investigate the factors that actually influence job satisfaction among city based young employees and also analyses the possible correlation between job satisfaction and city life, managerial approaches and opportunity gained at work. The study will make use of 100% young employees as the participants.

Adeyinka, et al (2007) investigated work motivation, job satisfaction and organizational commitment of library personnel in academic and research libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria. They used a modified questionnaire tagged “Work motivation, Job satisfaction and Commitment (WMJSCS) to collect the data from 200 library personnel. The instrument consisted of 3 parts namely motivation, job satisfaction and commitment.

The results of the study found that there is a correlation between perceived motivation, job satisfaction and commitment although the correlation between motivation and commitment was negative. In other case, motivation is seen as an ingredient that increases employees’ performance and job satisfaction.

The findings also confirmed that there is a relationship between the organization commitment and job satisfaction. This indicated that those employees who are job satisfied may be committed to the organization.


Life satisfaction

Andrew J Wefald et al (2008) studied the relationship of life and job satisfaction to emerging attitude, using 532 participants of 62% males and 37% females. They made used of self developed questionnaires and many others surveys such as Life Satisfaction (Diener, Emmons, Larsen & Griffing, 1985). The study found a correlation between life satisfaction and job satisfaction was significant at 0.36 (p less than 0.01). Their hierarchical regression analysis revealed that, after controlling for demographic variables, job attitude predicted both life satisfaction and job satisfaction however the relationship was stronger for job satisfaction.…/Wefald,Smith,etal_33.pdf.

This study will analyse a possible correlation between job satisfaction and city life among the young employees.


Training and Workplace performance

Melanie K. Jones et al (2008) in their paper analysed the relationship between training, job satisfaction and workplace performance using the British 2004 Workplace Employee Relations Survey (WERS) found that workers who receive very short amount of training (less than one day) in the previous year are actually less satisfied on several dimensions than those who received no training at all. They also considered an interaction between age and training and discovered a significant ….??? for workers in their thirties. The interaction terms used were also significant for those whose tenure is either 2 or less than 5 or 5 to less than 10 years. This study will analyse a possible correlation between job satisfaction and opportunity (training, pay etc) gained from the job among the young employees http://ftp.iza.orgHYPERLINK “”/HYPERLINK “”dp3677HYPERLINK “”.pdf.

Melanie K. Jones (2008) cited the study of Siebern-Thomas (2005), who found that job satisfaction tended to be greater where there was availability of work training. Also cited Hersch (1991), he found that over educated workers were less satisfied than adequately educated workers. http://ftp.iza.orgHYPERLINK “”/HYPERLINK “”dp3677HYPERLINK “”.pdf


Job stress

Nilufar Ahsan, et al (2009) investigated the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction among university staff in Malaysia; the aim of the study was to identify stressor issues that will influence the academy staffs’ job satisfaction. They made use of 300 respondents from the public university in Klang Valley and also use cross – sectional analysis, descriptive analysis and regression analysis to analyse the data collected. The following are some of the findings of the study- there was a relationship between management role and job stress; the association between relationship with others and job stress was not significant; the relationship between role ambiguity and job stress is significant; the relationship between the job stress and job satisfaction is significant. www.euroHYPERLINK “”journalsHYPERLINK “”.com/ejss_8_1_11.pdf

Nilufar Ahsan, et al (2009) cited the UK study of (Townley 2000) that indicated that the majority of the workers were unhappy with the current culture where they were required to work extended hours and cope with large workloads while simultaneously meeting production targets and deadlines. They also cited (Alexandros-Stamatios et al, (2003) that concluded that management role of an organisation is one of the aspects that affect work related stress among workers. www.euroHYPERLINK “”journalsHYPERLINK “”.com/ejss_8_1_11.pdf


Individual and job related factors

Sariye Gaziolu and Aysit (2002) observed the job satisfaction in Britain considering individual and job related factors. The four measures of job satisfaction considered were; satisfaction with influence over job, satisfaction with the amount of pay, satisfaction with sense of achievement and job satisfaction with respect from supervisors.

The paper analysed the above measures of job satisfaction using a data of 28240 British employees Workplace Employee Relations Survey (WERS97) and investigated their relationship to individual and job characteristics.

The findings of the study indicated that women were more satisfied with various aspects of their job compared to men. They also observed that satisfaction with the sense of achievement and satisfaction with respect from the supervisor reached a minimum at the ages of 22 and 28 years respectively. They observed that those with higher levels of education have lower satisfaction than those with low level of education. They also observed that training opportunity in the past year led to job satisfaction as compared to no training. A non-linear relationship between establishment size and the four measures of satisfaction was also



Jennifer S. Skibba (2002) evaluated how personality and job satisfaction affect job performance in employees at a Central Wisconsin fire department. The main objective of her study was to see if there was any relationship between job performance, personality and job satisfaction. Among other scales used were Cattell’s 16 Personality Factors and the participants were all the 38 fire fighters in a local fire department. She found that most of the employees were generally satisfied with the job, work on present job and people on present job. The study also pointed out that most of the employees were unsatisfied with pay, supervision and opportunity for promotion.

The results of the 16 Personality Factors scale used indicated Warmth and Sensitivity factor as the lowest while the highest mean was found for the Self-Reliance factor. Job satisfaction was positively correlated with the personality factors of liveliness, leadership potential and self-esteem but was negatively correlated with dominance, tension and independence.

Jennifer S. Skibba (2002) cited Abraham (2000) that found that personality cynicism was the best predictor of job satisfaction.

Muhammad Masroor Alam and Jmilha Fakir Mohammmad (2009) cited Purani and Sahadev (2007) who argued that while issues like supervisory behaviour and compensation form a part of the micro issues regarding a sales person’s engagement with the organization, the overall policies and strategies regarding the personnel is associated with a macro perspective with regard to the person’s evaluation of the organization.

Muhammad Masroor Alam and Jmilha Fakir Mohammmad (2009) saw compensation as one of the most extrinsic indicators of job satisfaction and argued that this dimension determines the level of job satisfaction of employees by knowing how much they are satisfied with the pay or compensation or any other security their jobs have provided to them. They cited Churchill et al (1974) that considered compensation as one among the dimensions of job satisfaction among sales people.…/Article_10.pdf




Bottom-up theory and the top-down theory.

Sharon and Zhan, (2003) conducted a research to explain how two social theories compete to explain what determines job satisfaction: the “bottom-up theory” and the “top-down” theory. The bottom-up theory basically indicates that persons have desires and they will be glad if their desires are met or satisfied. The total of positive and negative effects is used to establish happiness.

If the positive effects are larger than the negative effects, individuals will judge their life as happy. Sharon and Zhan, (2003) explained that top-down theory indicates that there is “a global propensity to experience things in a positive way.” In other words, all individuals have a desire to be happy and this attitude will be the major influence on their lives. Thus, feelings about job satisfaction are generated in one of two ways: from the bottom up by adding positive effects and subtracting negative ones, or from the top down by the diffusion of one’s desire to be happy. (Sharon and Zhan, 2003)


Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Stranglend (2009) cited and explained Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs as the theory that is based on a hierarchy of needs. Also cited Bor, Kraft and Sjunnesson, 2007) that indicated that the theory can be showed as a pyramid that has five levels starting from physiological, safety, love/belonging, esteem and then self-actualisation which are grouped as deficiency needs. Maslow believed that to motivate an individual he/she must meet the basic needs of food, shelter and warmth, and then move to the next level until he/she reached the highest level self-actualisation, a level where one purses inner talent, creativity and seeks fulfilment.


Herzberg’s Two – Factor Theory

Stranglend (2009), also Herzberg’s Two – Factor Theory that was developed by Frederick Herzberg. The theory suggested Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction are influences upon employees from two factors known as Motivators (intrinsic factors) and Hygiene (extrinsic factors). (Allen, 1998). The factors affect motivation at workplace.

It was further explained that Dissatisfaction is related to circumstances close to the work environment such as working conditions, security, pays, quality of supervision and relationship with co-workers rather than from the job itself. Deficiency of any of these conditions could cause dissatisfaction but has little effect on long-term satisfaction. These factors are referred to as hygiene or maintenance factors by Herzberg.

Satisfaction is the relationship to the job itself or aspect from it. This includes the nature of job, recognition, achievement, personal growth and advancement. Herzberg regards them as motivators.


Locke’s Value Theory

Stranglend (2009) also cited and explained Locke’s Value Theory. A part of the theory indicated that satisfaction is achieved when job results the employees receive matche those outcomes they desire. It also indicated that the more results people value and receive from the job, the more they are satisfied and vice versa.

Stranglend (2009) also cited (Greenberg and Baron, 1997) who stated that the main purpose of Locke’s theory is understanding the discrepancy between what one desires in a job and what one has in a job that affects satisfaction. For example, if one desires to be recognised in a job and that same employee received recognition, he/she will be satisfied. If such an employee was not recognised, he/she may be dissatisfied.


Expectancy Theory

Expectancy Theory emphasised that employees are motivated to do their jobs when they achieve what they want or actually expected from the job. It also explains the role of motivation in the overall work environment.

Stranglend (2009) also cited (Greenberg and Baron, 1977) who stated that an important part of expectancy theory is motivation coupled with an employee’s expertise and capabilities, role perception and opportunity which influence job performance. There are managerial methods of expectancy theory that can help to motivate employees. According to them, good managers will inform the employee what is expected from and will help them to reach the desired level of performance.


Equity theory

A.O. Okaro et al (2010) cited the equity theory which views motivation as reliant upon the need for fair treatment (Porter, 1961) and the goal or intention theory which postulates that performance is determine by the goal to which an employee is committed (Vroom, 1964)

Stranglend (2009) the theory explains that the employee is satisfied if the input (challenging work, qualification) is equal to the outputs (pays, benefits). This is what it’s referred to as equality.


Job Characteristic Model

Rajah (2009) cited Hackman and Oldham that proposed the Job Characteristic Model, which states that there are five core job characteristic which impact three critical psychological states. The five core job characteristic skills variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback. All these are combined together to form a motivating potential score. The three critical psychological states are experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility for outcomes and knowledge of the actual results. All these influence work outcomes (job satisfaction, absenteeism, etc). (Rajah, 2009)


Job satisfaction – The scales

In measuring job satisfaction of the employees, the most common means of data collection is Likert Scale. Others are yes/no questions, true/false questions, points systems, checklist, and forces choice answers. (Rajah, 2009)

The major and common scales used for measuring job satisfaction apart from the self developed questionnaires are:


The job descriptive index (JDI):

Stranglen (2009) explained that the scale or questionnaire is based on yes, no or a question mark answers. The questions are based on how satisfied the employees are about their jobs and not on how they feel about it. The scale consists of five facet of job satisfaction which are; satisfaction with co-workers, satisfaction with the work itself, satisfaction with the pay, satisfaction with the opportunity for promotion and satisfaction with supervision. (Greenberg and Baron, 1997) as cited by Stranglen (2009). Many researchers had made use of this scale.

This study will make use of this scale to investigate the factors that actually influence job satisfaction among city based young employees.


The Minnesota satisfaction questionnaires (MSQ)

Strangled (2009) explained MSQ as a scale that is developed into two forms. The short form that contains twenty items measure overall satisfaction. The long form contains one hundred items and measures twenty facets. According to (Greenberg and Baron, 1997) in (Strangled, 2009), the scales allow the employees to rate their dissatisfaction to satisfaction about various aspects of facets of the job. Also according to them, the higher the score on the Likert scale the higher the satisfaction.

MSQ have been used by lots of researchers. For example, Safdar Rehman Gehazi and Umar Ali Khan (2007) cited McCann (2001) who made use of MSQ in his study to measure the job satisfaction of directors in California and Dutka (2002) also use the same questionnaires in his study on job satisfaction and organizational climate relationship for female administrators of higher education institution.

Roberto & Jon, (2003) also made use MSQ to analysed the level of job satisfaction by certified athletic trainers in selected National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I-AA institution having football programmes.…/HYPERLINK “…/job-satisfaction-among-athletic-trainers-ncaa-division-iaa-institutions”jobHYPERLINK “…/job-satisfaction-among-athletic-trainers-ncaa-division-iaa-institutions”-HYPERLINK “…/job-satisfaction-among-athletic-trainers-ncaa-division-iaa-institutions”satisfactionHYPERLINK “…/job-satisfaction-among-athletic-trainers-ncaa-division-iaa-institutions”-HYPERLINK “…/job-satisfaction-among-athletic-trainers-ncaa-division-iaa-institutions”amongHYPERLINK “…/job-satisfaction-among-athletic-trainers-ncaa-division-iaa-institutions”-HYPERLINK “